Fri. Dec 3rd, 2021

Legal Advisors

Lawyers, Legal Advisors, Law Firm, Nepal

The Companies Act, 2063 (2006)

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An Act made to amend and consolidate the law relating to companies Preamble: Whereas, it is expedient to amend and consolidate the law relating to companies in order to bring about dynamism in the economic development of the country by promoting investment in the industry, trade and business sectors through economic liberalization and make the incorporation, operation and administration of companies much easier, simpler and more transparent; Now, therefore, be it enacted by the House of Representatives in the First Year of the issuance of the Proclamation of the House of Representatives, 2063 (2006).

Chapter 1 PRELIMINARY

1. Short title and commencement:

(1) This act may be called as the “Companies Act, 2063(2006)”. (2) This Act shall be deemed to have come into force on 20 Ashwin 2063 (6 October 2006).

2. Definitions:

In this Act, unless the subject or the context otherwise requires, (a) “Company” means a company incorporated under this Act. (b) “Private company” means a private company incorporated under this Act. (c) “Public company” means a company other than a private company. (d) “Holding company” means a company-having control over a subsidiary company. (e) “Subsidiary company” means a company controlled by a holding company. (f) “Foreign company” means a company incorporated outside Nepal. (g) “Listed company” means public company which has its securities listed in the stock exchange. (h) “company not distributing profits” means company incorporated under Chapter 19 on conditions that it shall not be entitled to distribute or pay to its members any dividends or any other moneys out of the profits earned or savings made for the attainment of any objectives. (i) “Promoter” means a person who, having consented to the matters contained in the memorandum of association and the articles of association to be furnished in the Office for the incorporation of a company, signs the same in the capacity of promoter. (j) “Officer” includes director, chief executive, manager, company secretary, liquidator and any employee undertaking departmental responsibility of the company. 3 (k) “Memorandum of association” means the memorandum of association of a company. (l) “Articles of association” means the articles of association of a company. (m) “Prospectus” means a prospectus to be published by a company pursuant to Section 23. (n) “Share” means the divided portion of the share capital of a company. (o) “Preference share” means a share issued as a preference share pursuant to this Act. (p) “Ordinary share” means a share other than a preference share. (q) “Bonus share” means a share issued as an additional share to shareholders, by capitalizing the saving earned from the profits or the reserve fund of a company, and this term includes the increase of the paid up value of a share by capitalizing the saving or reserve fund. (r) “Shareholder” means a person having ownership in the share of a company. (s) “Debenture” means any bond issued by accompany whether putting its assets as collateral or not. (t) “Debenture trustee” means a body corporate undertaking the responsibility for the protection of interests of debenture-holders at the time of issuance of debentures by a company. 4 (u) “Register” means a register of shareholders or debenture-holders maintained under Section 46. (v) “Seal of company” means the seal of a company to be used by it. (w) “Securities Board” means the securities board established under the prevailing law to regulate and manage securities. (x) “Securities” means any shares, bonds, debentures or stocks issued by a company, and this term includes the receipt relating to deposits of securities and the rights and entitlement relating to securities. (y) “Director” means any director of a company and this term includes any alternate director. (z) “Board of directors” means the board of directors of a company. (z1) “Managing director” means a managing director of a company. (z2) “Premium share” means a share so issued by a company as to sell it for a value in excess of its face value. (z3) “Net worth” means the assets of a company remaining after deducting the paid up capital, reserve, fund or free reserve of whatever designation to which shareholders have right or all other liabilities other than goodwill, if any, of the company as well as loss provisions , if any, from the total assets of the company for the time being . (z4) “Consensus agreement” means an agreement made unanimously by all the shareholders of a private company existing for the time being in respect of the operation of the company. (z5) “Office” means the Company Registrar’s Office set up by the Government of Nepal for the administration of companies. (z6) “Register” means the Registrar of the Office. (z7) “Independent director” means any independent director appointed under Sub-section (3) of Section 86. (z8) “Court” means the commercial bench of a court specified by the Government Nepal by a notification in the Nepal Gazette, with the consent of the Supreme Court. (z9) “Close relative” means a partition shareholder in joint family or husband, wife, father, mother, mother-in -law, father-in- law, elder brother, younger brother, elder sister, younger sister, sisterin–law ,(elder or younger brother’s wife), brother-in– law , sister–in–law, brother-in- law, (husband of elder sister), uncle, aunt, maternal uncle, maternal aunt, son, daughter, daughter-in-law ,grand–son, grand-daughter, grand-daughter-in– law or son-in– law . (z10) “Prescribed” or “as prescribed” means prescribed or as prescribed by the Government of Nepal by a notification in the Nepal Gazette. 6

Chapter 2 INCORPORATION OF COMPANY

3. Incorporation of Company:

(1) Any person desirous of undertaking any enterprise with profit motive may, either singly or jointly with others, incorporate a company for the attainment of one or more objecttves set forth in the memorandum of association. (2) There shall be a minimum of seven promoters for the incorporation of a public company. Provided, however, that seven promoters shall not be required for the incorporation of another public company by any public company. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, a company not distributing profits may, subject to the provisions contained in Chapter-19, be incorporated for the attainment of one or more objectives.

4. Application to be made for incorporation of company:

(1) Any person desirous of incorporating a company pursuant to Section 3 shall make an application to the Office, in such format and accompanied by such fees as prescribed, and along with the following documents, as well: (a) The memorandum of association of the proposed company, (b) The articles of association of the proposed company, (c) In the case of a public company, a copy of the agreement, if any, entered into between the promoters prior to the incorporation of the company, 7 (d) In the case of a private company, a copy of the consensus agreement, if any, entered into , (e) Where prior approval or license has to be obtained from anybody under the prevailing law prior to the registration of a company carrying on any particular type of business or transaction pursuant to the prevailing law, such approval or license, (f) Where the promoter is a Nepalese citizen, a certified copy of the citizenship certificate and where a corporate body is a promoter, a certificate of registration of incorporation, decision of the Board of directors, regulating The incorporation of the company and major documents regarding incorporation. (g) Where the promoter is a foreign person or company or body, permission obtained under the prevailing law to make investment or carry on business or transaction in Nepal, (h) Where the promoters is a foreign person, a document proving the country of his citizenship, (i) Where the promoter is a foreign company or body, a certified copy of the incorporation of such company or body and major documents relating to such incorporation. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section(1), if the promoter agrees to accept the articles of association in the format prescribed for the incorporation of a company with a single promoter of 8 single shareholder, it shall not be required to submit the articles of association of the proposed company.

5. Registration of company:

(1) Where an application is made for the incorporation of a company pursuant to Section 4, the Office shall, after making necessary inquiries, register such company within 15 days after the date of making of the application and grant the company registration certificate to the applicant, in the format as prescribed. (2) After a company has been registered pursuant to Sub-section (1), the company shall be deemed incorporated. (3) The office shall maintain a company register in the format as prescribed, for purpose of Sub-section (1). (4) After the incorporation of a company under this Section, subject to this Act, the matters contained in the memorandum of association and the articles of association shall be binding on the company and its shareholders as if these where the provisions contained in separate agreements between the company and every shareholder and amongst its shareholders. (5) Without registering a company under this Act, no person shall use the name company and carry on any kind of transaction by the name of any firm or institution.

6. Power to refuse to register company:

(1) The Office may refuse to register a company in any of the following circumstances: (a) If the name of the proposed company in identical with the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered or so resembles the name of that company as it might cause misleading, 9 (b) If the name or objective of the proposed company is contrary to the prevailing law or appears to be improper or undesirable in view of public interest, morality, decency, etiquette etc. or reflects criminal motive , (c) If the name of the proposed company is identical with the name of a company of which registration has been cancelled pursuant to this Act or that of a company which has been insolvent under the prevailing law or so resembles such name as it might cause misleading and a period of five years shall not expired after such cancellation of registration or insolvency, (d) If the requirements for the incorporation of a company under this Act are not fulfilled. (2) If the office refuses to register company in any of the circumstances as referred to in Sub-section (1) it shall give a notice there of, accompanied by the reasons therefore, to the applicant no later than 15 days after the date of application made for the incorporation of company pursuant to Section 4. (3) If the office refuses to register any company pursuant to Subsection (1) or fails to give a notice pursuant to Sub-section (2), a person who is not satisfied may file a complaint in the court within fifteen days.

7. Company to be a body corporate:

(1) Any company incorporated under this Act shall be an autonomous and corporate body with perpetual succession. 10 (2) Subject to this Act, company like an individual, acquire, hold, sell, dispose of or otherwise deal with, any movable or immovable property. (3) An company may sue and be also sued by its own name. (4) An company may, like an individual, enter into a contract and exercise the rights and perform the obligations as referred to in the contract.

8. Limited liability:

The liability of a shareholder of a company incorporated under this Act in respect of its transactions shall be limited on to the maximum value of shares which he has subscribed or undertaken to subscribe.

9. Number of shareholders:

(1) The number of shareholders of a private company shall not exceed fifty. (2) Subject to the proviso to Sub-section (2) of section 3, the number of shareholders of a public company shall be seven in minimum and a maximum of any number. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1), any employee who has purchased a share of a company under scheme of selling shares to employees or any employee who has already purchased a share under such scheme but is not in service of the company for the time being shall not be counted as a shareholder.

10. Terms to be abided by company:

An company incorporated under this Act shall abide by the following terms, in addition to those set forth in this Art, memorandum of association or articles of association: (a) The company shall carry on all of its activities and transactions by its name. 11 (b) A private company shall add the words “private limited’’ to its name as the last words and a public company shall add the word “limited” to its name as the last word. Provided, however, that this provision shall not apply to a company not distributing profit. (c) A private company shall not sell its shares and debentures publicly. (d) A private company shall not pledge, or otherwise transfer title to, its securities to any person other than its shareholder without fulfilling the procedures contained in the memorandum of consensus agreement, (e) A company shall not open a partnership or private firm. (f) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, a company not distributing profits shall not distribute dividends among its members or pay, directly or indirectly, any amount to a member or his/her close relative.

11. Paid up capital of public company:

(1) The paid up capital of a public company shall be a minimum of ten million rupees, except as otherwise provided in the prevailing law or in a notification by the Government of Nepal in the Nepal Gazette that the paid up capital of any particular company shall be in excess of the said required minimum. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in subsection (1), a public company which does not have the paid up capital as mentioned in that subsection at the time of commencement of this Act shall 12 maintain the capital referred to in subsection (1) no later than 22 Ashwin 2065 (8 December 2008).

12. To be incorporated as public company to carry on some specific transactions:

Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, a company carrying on the business of banking, financial transactions, insurance business related transactions, stock exchange business, pension fund or mutual fund or a company carrying on such other business or transactions as may be prescribed shall be incorporated as a public company.

13. Conversion of private company into public company:

(1) In the following circumstances, a private company shall be converted into a public company under this section: (a) If the general meeting of the private company, by adopting a special resolution, decides to convert that company into a public company, Provided, however, that no private company shall be capable of being converted into a public company unless and until it fulfills the requirements to be fulfilled under this Act for being a public company (b) If twenty five percent or more of the shares of a private company are subscribed by one or more than one public company, Provided, however, that in computing the percentage as referred to in this Clause, the share passed by any banking or financial company as a trustee shall not be calculated. 13 (c) If a private company subscribes twenty five percent or more of the shares of a public company. (2) In the circumstances as refer to in Clause (a) of Sub-section (1), the concerned private company, shall for being converted into a public company, make an application as prescribed, accompanied by a copy of the resolution mentioned in that Clause and by the fees as prescribed , to the office within thirty days after the date of such resolution. (3) On receipt of an application pursuant to Sub-station (2), the office shall, if the concerned private company has fulfilled the necessary requirements for carrying on transactions as a public company, mention in the company register the contents of conversion of such company into a public company and give a company conversion certificates as prescribed within sixty days. (4) If any private company has to be converted into a public company owing into the circumstances referred to in Clause (b) or (c) of Sub-section (1), the concerned private company shall make an application, as prescribed, setting out all details, accompanied by the fees as prescribed, to the Office for being converted into a public company within seven days after the date of occurrence of such circumstances. (5) On receipt of an application pursuant to Sub-section(4), the Office shall, if such company has fulfilled the requirements to be fulfilled by a public company under this Act to carry on transactions, mention in the company register the contents of conversion of company into a public company and give a company conversion certificate as prescribed. (6) If private company is converted into a public company pursuant to this Section, any subsidiary company of that company, as 14 well, shall, ipso facto be deemed to have been converted into a public company in the same date. (7) In the event of conversion into a public company pursuant to Sub-section (6), it shall be the obligation of the concerned company to make an application, accompanied by the required documents, to the Office to get recorded in the company register the contents of conversion of such subsidiary company into a public company and obtain the certificate. (8) In the event of conversion of any private company into a public company pursuant to this Section, the provisions applicable to the public company under this Act shall be deemed to be, ipso facto, applicable to that company after the date of such conversion. (9) In the event of conversion of any private company into a public company pursuant to this Section, all the assets and liabilities of the private company so converted shall devolve on the successor company.

14. Conversion of public company into a private company:

(1) In the following circumstance, a public company shall be converted into a private company under this Section: (a) If the number of shareholders of the public company becomes less than seven, (b) If the public company fails to maintain its paid-up capital under Section 11 or the paid-up capital as referred to in section 11 is not maintained because of reduction in capital pursuant to section 57. 15 Provided, however, that this provision shall not apply to the company as referred to in Sub-section (2) of Section 11. (2) In the event of occurrence of a circumstance as referred to in Sub-section (1), the concerned public company shall make necessary amendments to its memorandum of association and articles of association and convert it into a private company within six months. (3) The concerned public company shall make an application, accompanied by copies of the memorandum of association and articles of association amended pursuant to sub- section (2) and the prescribed fees, to the Office for being converted into a private company, within thirty days after the making of such amendment. (4) On receipt of an application pursuant to Sub-section(3),the Office shall mention in the company register the contents of conversion of such company into a private company and give a company conversion certificate, as prescribed, within sixty days. (5) In the event of conversion of any public company into a private company pursuant to Sub-section (4), all the assets and liabilities of the public company to be so converted shall devolve on the successor company.

15. Service of summons, notice etc:

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing law, if any notice, summons, letters rogatory etc. required to be served on a company, director, shareholder, debenture-holder or employee in regard to the transactions of, or any matter related with, the company, is delivered at the registered office of the company or sent by registered post or sent through the tale-fax, email, telex or similar other electronic device installed in such office, such notice, summons or letter oratory shall be deemed to have been 16 duly served. If any notice, summons, letters rogetory etc. cannot be so served, the concerned company, director or employee may be informed thereof by broadcasting or publishing a notice pertaining there to by radio, television or in any newspaper circulating at national level. In such a case, he/ she shall be deemed to have been informed thereof. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing law, if any notice, summons, letter rogatory etc. is required to be served by a company or by any competent authority or court on any director, shareholder, debenture-holder or employee or the company in any matter related with his/ her duties of office, it may be sent to the telex, email, tele fax address, if any, given by such director, shareholder or employee and where such address has not been given, it may be sent by registered post to the address supplied by him for correspondences by post and where such summons, notice, letters rogatory etc. is so sent, the same shall be deemed to have been duly served. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, in providing a notice or information required to be sent by accompany to its shareholder debenture-holder or director under this Act or receiving any information from them, such notice or information may be sent to an electronic communication address supplied by them, by using electronic communication device as provided in the articles of association of the company or if they so agree. Provided, however, that such notice or information shall be sent by post or through other reliable means to the shareholder, debenture-holder or director who does not consent to the service of such notice or information on him by electronic communication device.

16. Functions and duties of Registrar:

(1) It shall be the duty of the Registrar to implement this Act and carry out company administration. 17 (2) Without prejudice to the generality of Sub-section (1), the Registrar may frame and issue necessary directives for the implementation of this Act and the carrying out of company administration related functions in an effective or systematic manner: and it shall be the duty of each company and officer to abide by such directives. (3) The directives issued pursuant to Sub-section (2) shall be published in such a manner that such directives are available to the general public. (4) The Registrar may, as per necessity, delegate any of the powers conferred to him/ her under this Act to any officer employee subordinate to him. (5) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, nothing in this Section shall be deemed to limit the direction given by any regulatory body to a company under the prevailing law or the authority to be exercised by that body in respect of such company under the prevailing law.

17. Pre-incorporation contract:

(1) A contract made prior to the incorporation of a company shall be a proposed contract only, and such contract shall not be binding on the company. (2) If, prior to the incorporation of a company, any person carries on any transaction or borrows money on behalf of the company, such person shall be personally liable for any contract related with the transaction so carried on, subject to Sub-section (3). (3) If, within the time mentioned in any transactions or within the reasonable time after the incorporation of a company, the company, through its act, action or conduct, accepts any act, action or conduct, 18 accepts any act, action to borrowing done or made prior to the date of authorization to commence its transactions or endorses such act or action, that transaction shall be binding on the company and the other contracting party; and the person carrying out such act to action shall be released from the personal liability to be borne pursuant to Subsection(2). (4) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, the consensus agreement of a private company shall govern any contracts made prior to the incorporation of such company.

Chapter 3 Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association and prospectus

18. Memorandum of Association:

(1) The Memorandum of Association of a company shall state the following matters: (a) The name of company, (b) The address of the registered office of the company, (c) The objectives of the company, (d) The acts to be carried out to accomplish the objectives of the company, (e) The figure of the authorized capital of the company and the figure of the share capital to be issued by the company for time being and the figure of undertaken to be paid by the promoter of the company, (f) Types of shares of the company, the rights and powers inherent in such shares, value of each share and number of shares of different types, 19 (g) Restrictions, if any, in the purchase or transfer of shares, (h) Number of shares which the promoters have undertaken to subscribe for the time being, (i) Terms of payments of share amounts, (j) Statements that the liability of shareholders shall be limited, (k) The maximum number of shareholders in case of a private company, (l) Other necessary matters. (2) If any of the following matters shall be done or provided, in addition to those mentioned in Sub-section(1), the memorandum of association shall also state such matters: (a) If the promoter or any other person is entitled to subscribe shares or acquire title thereto in any manner other than by making payment in cash, such matter, (b) If the company is to acquire any property in any manner from the promoter or any other person at the time of commencement of its transactions such matter, (c) If the company itself to bear the expenses incurred on its incorporation, such matter, (d) If the promoter or any other person is entitled to any special privilege or right from the company, such matter. 20 (3) In subscribing shares or acquiring title thereto by the promoter or any other person in consideration fit other than cash payment as mentioned in Clause (a) of Sub- section (2) and in acquiring any property by he company from the promoter or any other person at the time of commencement of its transactions as mentioned in cause (b), in the case if a public company, such consideration other than cash and such property shall be caused to be valuated by an engineer or accountant holding certificate to conduct valuation work under the prevailing law. (4) The criteria for the valuation of any property pursuant to Sub-section (3) shall be as prescribed; and unless such criteria are prescribed, the person valuating such property shall mention the criteria employed by him/her to valuate the property. (5) If the memorandum of association is inconsistent with this Act it shall ipso facto be void to the extent of such inconsistency. (6) The format of memorandum of association shall be as prescribed.

19. Signature to be affixed on memorandum of association:

(1) The memorandum of association of a company shall state the full names and addresses of its promoters, indicate the number of shares which each promoter has undertaken to subscribe and be signed by each of them. (2) The memorandum of association shall clearly contain the names and address of a witness for each promoter and also bear the signature of such witness. 21 (3) Each promoter shall undertake to subscribe the shares as mentioned in the articles of association of the company and at least one hundred shares if no provision is so mentioned. (4) No later than one year after the incorporation of a company, an application may be made, pursuant to a decision of the board of directors of the company, to the Office for the rectification of any minor mistake or printing or typing error appearing in the memorandum of association and articles of association submitted along with an application made under Section 4. (5) If an application is made pursuant Sub-section(4),the Office shall, if it deems proper after examining it, rectify such mistake or error and record the same. Provided, however, that no matter shall be rectified in a manner to alter the main objectives of the company.

20. Articles of association:

(1) A company shall frame the articles of association in order to attain the objectives set forth in its memorandum of association and carry out its activities in a well –managed manner. (2) The articles of association shall state the following matters: (a) Procedures for convening the general meeting of the company and notice to be given for such meeting, (b) Proceedings of general meeting, (c) Number of directors, provision of alternate director, if any, and tenure of directors, (d) Provisions relating to the minutes of decisions of the general meeting and the board of directors, and duplicate copies and inspection thereof, 22 (e) If a person has to subscribe shares to become a director of a company, minimum number of shares, (f) In the case of a public company, qualifications and number of independent director, (g) Where any professional persons, other than shareholders, are to be appointed as directors, provisions relating to the number, tenure, qualifications and procedures of appointment of such persons, (h) Powers and duties of the board of directors and the managing director, (i) Authority of directors and delegation of authority, (j) Quorum for a meeting of the board of directors, notice of meeting and proceedings of meeting, (k) Lien on shares, (l) Different classes of shares and the rights, powers and restrictions attached to such shares, (m) Provisions relating to calls on shares and forfeiture of shares, (n) Provisions relating to the transfer of shares, (o) Matters on alteration in share capital, (p) Matters on buying back of shares by the company, if the company is to buy back its shares, (q) Appointment of a company secretary, (r) Provisions relating to remuneration, allowances and facilities of directors, 23 (s) Use of the company’s seal in its transactions, if it is to be so used, (t) Accounts, books of accounts and audit of the company, (u) Provisions on powers to raise loans or debentures, (v) Amalgamation of the company, (w) Such matters, if any, as required by the prevailing law to be mentioned in the articles of association of a company carrying on any specific business, (x) Such other necessary matters as required to be mentioned in the articles of association. (3) If any provision contained in the articles of association of the company, inclusive of a provision on the saving of its directors or officers, is inconsistent with this Act and the memorandum of association, such provision shall be void to the extent of such inconsistency. (4) The format of articles of association shall be as prescribed.

21. Amendment to memorandum of association and articles of association:

(1) The general meeting of a company may, subject to Section 6, amend the memorandum of association or articles of association, by adopting a special resolution to that effect. (2) The company shall give information of any amendment made to the memorandum of association or articles of association pursuant to Sub-section (12)to the Office within thirty days; and the Office shall record the same and give information thereof to the concerned company, within seven days after the receipt of such information. 24 (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section(2),if any company has to amend its name, it shall adopt a special resolution to that effect at its general meeting and make an application, accompanied by the fees as prescribed, for prior approval of the Office: and if the Office gives approval to amend the names as per the application so received, the name of that company shall be amended. (4) If a shareholder of a public company who is not satisfied with an amendment made to the objectives of the company may ,on fulfilling the following requirements, file a petition, setting out the reasons therefore, in the court to have that amendment declared null and void: (a) A shareholder or shareholders holding at least five percent shares of the paid-up capital of the company, except the shareholders who consent to or vote for the amendment or alteration, has to make a petition, (b) A petition has to be filed within twenty one days after the adoption of the resolution to amend the objectives of the company, (c) Where any one is to file a petition on behalf of one or more than one shareholder entitled to make petition, the petition has to be filed by a person who is authorized in writing for that purpose. (5) Unless and until the court is satisfied that the information about the contents, date, time and venue of a petition made under Subsection (4) has also been given to the company, the petition shall not be heard. 25 Provided, however, that if it appears from the documents submitted to the court that the concerned company has refused to acknowledge the notice, nothing shall prevent the court from hearing the petition. (6) Where a petition is filed in the court pursuant to Subsection(4), the amendment made to the objectives of the company shall not be effective pending the final decision or order by the court in that matter. (7) On a petition as referred to in sub- section (4) , the court may issue an appropriate order, specifying the following terms and conditions: (a) Declaring the amendment made to the objectives of the company to be fully or partly valid or void, (b) Requiring the company to subscribe for a reasonable value, the shares and other rights held by the shareholders making a petition under Subsection(4),upon being disagreed with the making os alteration in the main objectives of the company, (c) The shares have to be subscribed under Clause (b) from the moneys as referred to in Sub-section(2) of Section 61; and in the case of a company which has no such moneys, issuing an order to decrease the capital of the company as if the share capital were decreased to the extent of such subscription by adopting a special resolution by the company; and where such order is issued, the company shall amend its memorandum of association and articles of association, subject to the provisions of this Act. 26 (8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, where an order is issued by the court to fully or partly void the decision made by the company to amend its objectives, the company shall not be entitled to amend its memorandum of association or articles of association in that matter without permission of the court or in a manner contrary to the order of the court. (9) Where the memorandum of association or articles of association of a company is altered by an order of the court or the amendment made by the company is fully or partly endorsed by the court, such alteration or endorsement shall be enforced as if such alteration or endorsement were made by the general meeting of the company on its own.

22. Memorandum of association and articles of association to be published:

(1) A public company shall publish its memorandum of association and articles of association within three months after getting license to commence its business. (2) If any amendment is made to the memorandum of association and articles of association of a public company, the amended memorandum of association and articles of association shall be published within three months after such amendment. (3) A public company shall so keep the memorandum of association and articles of association published pursuant to Sub– section (1) or (2) at its registered office that such memorandum and articles can be made available as and when so demanded by the concerned.

23. Prospectus to be published:

(1) A public company shall publish its prospectus prior to issuing its securities publicly. 27 (2) Prior to the publication of prospectus under Sub-section(1), the prospectus signed by all directors of the company has to be submitted, along with a written application made to the Securities Board for approval, under the prevailing laws on securities. (3) Unless and until the Securities Board approves and gives permission for the public issue under Sub-section (2) and a copy of such prospectus is registered with the office, no company or no person, on behalf of such company, shall publish, or cause to be published , the prospectus of such company. (4) If it appears that the prospectus submitted pursuant to Subsection(2) omits any important matter or contains any unnecessary matter the Securities Board shall cause such prospectus to be amended or altered as required and grant approval to publish it in accordance with law. (5) If the prospectus submitted pursuant too Sub-section (2) is approved by the Securities Board, the concerned company shall give to the Office information thereof, in writing, accompanied by a copy of the approval letter of the Securities Board; and on receipt of that information, the Office shall register the prospectus pursuant to this Section. Provided, however, that if it appears that any matter contained in this Act has not been complied with, the Office may refuse to register it. (6) If any person demands for a copy of the prospectus registered pursuant to Sub-section (5) , the Office shall provide such copy by collecting the prescribed fees. 28 (7) In publishing the prospectus pursuant to Sub-section(1), the company shall also mention that the prospectus has been approved by the Securities Board and registered with the Office, and the date thereof. (8) The covering page of each prospectus shall also mention that such prospectus has been registered pursuant to this Section and that the Securities Board or the Office shall not be liable to bear any kind of responsibility in respect of the matters mentioned therein. (9) Prior to the approval by the Securities Board of the prospectus of any company, the concerned company shall make a declaration before the Securities Board that the provisions of this Act have been complied with; and the Securities Board may, if it deems necessary, seek opinion of the Office on that matter. (10) Other procedures to be fulfilled in publishing the prospectus and the matters to be set out in the prospectus shall be as mentioned in the prevailing law on securities.

24. Liability for matters contained in prospectus:

(1) It shall be the duty and obligation of the concerned company to abide by the matters contained in the prospectus published under Section (23). (2) The directors who have signed the prospectus as referred to in Sub-section (1) shall be liable for the matters mentioned in that prospectus . (3) If any published prospectus contains false statements made maliciously or deliberately and any person sustains any loss or damage by reason of his/her subscription of securities on the faith of that prospectus, the directors who have signed that prospectus shall be personally liable to pay compensation for the actual loss or damage so sustained . 29 Provided, however, that a promoter who resigns before the decision made by the company to publish the prospectus or whom on becoming aware of any false statement in the prospectus, publishes a notice of that matter to the information of the general public prior to the sale or allotment of securities or who proves that he/she did not know that the prospectus contained any false statement shall not be liable to bear such compensation.

25. Duplicate copies to be issued:

(1) If any shareholder or any other person concerned demands for a duplicate copy of the memorandum of association, prospectus, annual accounts and audit or directors report or any document submitted by the company to the Office the concerned company shall provide a duplicate copy of such document by collecting the fees prescribed in the articles of association. Provided, however, that any person whoever may demand for such document in the case of a public company. (2) If the concerned company does not provide duplicates of such documents pursuant to Sub-section (1), the Office shall provide duplicates of such documents from its records by collecting the prescribed fees.

26. Seal of company and its use:

(1) A company which intends to use a seal in its transactions shall make the seal in its name in clear legible letters. (2) The company using the seal as referred to in Sub-section (1), shall use it in any reports and records to be submitted on its behalf and business letters to be used in its name, statements of accounts, bills, invoices, requisition order forms, notices and official publications, negotiable instruments, bills of exchange, promissory notes, and official documents signed or issued on its behalf. 30 (3) If any person fails to indicate the name of the company while signing, on behalf of the company, the documents mentioned in Subsection (2) , such person shall be personably liable for the same.

Chapter 4 SHARES AND DEBENTURES

27. Face value of shares and application:

(1) The face value of shares of a private company shall be as specified in its articles of association. (2) The face value of shares of a public company shall be fifty rupees per share or shall be equivalent to such amount exceeding fifty rupees as is divisible by the figure ten as provided in the memorandum of association and articles of association. (3) In inviting an application by a public company for the subscription of its shares, no amount exceeding fifty per cent of the face value of each share shall be demanded with the application. Provided, however, that in raising capital by a company which has been in operation since at least three years ago by publishing its audited fiscal statements for its last three years, at the time of publication of its prospectus, this provision shall not be applicable. (4) A person who intends to subscribe the shares of a public company has to make an application in the format as prescribed.

28. Allotment of shares:

(1) Where a public company invites the general public to apply for the subscription of its shares it shall allot the shares and give the shareholders a notice in the format as prescribed, within a maximum period of three months after the date of closure of share issue. 31 Provided, however, that in cases where at least fifty percent of the total shares issued publicly cannot be sold failing a guarantee/underwriting agreement on the subscription of at least fifty percent of the publicly issued shares, no shares shall be allotted. (2) If the company makes an application, explaining the reasons for failure to allot shares within the time-limit set forth in Sub-section(1), owing to the circumstance mentioned in the proviso to that Sub-section within seven days after the expiration of that time-limit, the Office may extend the time limit for up to three months for the allotment of shares. If the shares cannot be allotted even within such extended time limit, the company may allot such shares through negotiations or any other methods. (3) If the allotment of shares cannot be made even within the time –limit as referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2) , the amount received for the subscription of shares as well as an interest thereon, as prescribed, from the day of expiration of such time-limit to the day of refund of such amount shall be refunded. (4) If the funds are insufficient to refund the amount required to be refunded pursuant to Sub-section (3), the shortfall amount shall be borne by the promoters personally. (5) Where the allotment of shares pursuant to Sub-section (1)or (2) is made discriminatorily or with intent to cause any loss or damage to any investor may file a petition, setting out the reasons for the same, in the court on that matter. (6) If a petition is filed pursuant to Sub-section 5), where any investor has sustained any loss or damage by reason of the deliberate violation of this Section by any officer of the company or permission given by such officer to any one to commit such violation, the court 32 may issue an order for realization from such officer personally of compensation for such loss or damage as well as reasonable expenses incurred in the legal action. 29. Power to issue shares at premium: (1) Any company fulfilling the following conditions may, with the prior approval of the Office, issue shares at a premium: (a) The company has been making profits and distributing dividends for three consecutive years, (b) The company’s net worth exceeds its total liabilities, (c) The company’s general meeting has decided to issue shares at a premium. (2) Where the shares are sold at a premium pursuant to Subsection (1), a sum in excess of the face value, out of the proceeds thereof, shall be deposited in a premium account to be opened to that effect. (3) The company may use the moneys in the account as referred to in Sub-section (2) in the following acts: (a) Paying up unissued share capital to be issued to the shareholders as fully paid bonus shares, (b) Providing for the premium payable on redemption of any redeemable preference shares, (c) Writing off the preliminary expenses made by the company, (d) Bearing or reimbursing the expenses of, or the commission paid or discount allowed on, any issue of shares of the company. 33 (e) In making a request for approval of the Office to issue shares at a premium pursuant to Sub-section (1), the audited financial statements for three years shall be provided to the Office. 30. Shares with different rights and rights of such shareholders: (1) The company may, by making provisions to that effect in its memorandum of association and articles of association, issue various classes of shares with different rights attached thereto. (2) Except as otherwise provided in the articles of association of a accompany, approval of the shareholders of any particular class shall be required to make any alteration in the rights of those shareholders of that class. Provided, however, that no alteration may be made in the rights of the shareholders of any particular class in a manner to adversely affect the rights of the shareholders of any other class. (3) If the shareholders representing at least ten percent share of any particular class who are not satisfied with a decision to make alteration in the rights attached to the shares of that class pursuant to Sub- section (2) file a petition in the court to have the decision to make such alteration void, the decision made to make alteration in the rights of the shareholders of such class shall not be enforced unless and until otherwise decided or ordered by the court. (4) A petition shall be made pursuant to Sub-section (3) within thirty days after the decision made to make alteration in the rights attached to the shares of any particular class; and any decision as referred to in Sub-section(2) shall not be enforced pending the expiration of that time limit. 34 (5) If it appears that alteration in the rights conferred to the shareholders of the class concerned is prejudicial to the rights of the petitioner shareholders, the court may quash the decision made on the alteration in the rights of the shareholders of that class. (6) The board of directors shall submit a proposed resolution on the alteration in the rights of the shareholders of any particular class pursuant to Sub-section (2) to the general meeting of the shareholders of the concerned class; and such resolution has to be adopted as a special resolution by the general meeting. (7) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, in privatizing a company fully or partly owned by the Government of Nepal, as a shareholder, in accordance with the prevailing law on privatization, the Government of Nepal may have special voting right in making decision on the following matters, as provided in the articles of association, so long as the investment to the Government of Nepal is retained in such company: (a) In making decision on a resolution to relinquish the title to an undertaking pursuant to Clause (a) of Subsection (1) of Section 105, (b) In making decision on voluntary liquidation of the company, (c) In making decision to amalgamate the company into another company.

31. Return of shares to be filed with office:

(1) A company shall file with the Office a return of allotments stating the number of shares issued and allotted, total amount of the shares, the names and addresses 35 of the allotters, and the amount paid or due and payable on each share, within thirty days after the allotment of shares. (2) if any shares have been allotted as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash, the company shall file with the Office a deed constituting the title of the allotter to the shares together with any contract of sale or a contract for services or other consideration in respect of which that allotment was made, and a return stating the number and nominal amount of shares so allotted and the extent to which they are to be treated as paid- up.

32. Dealing in securities:

(1) While issuing its securities to the general public, a public company shall deal in the securities only through a securities dealer recognized to do securities transactions including all acts such as the sale, allotment and recovery of amounts of such securities. (2) A public company shall file with the Office a copy of an agreement made by it on the dealing of securities through any body, within seven days after the date of making of such agreement.

33. Share certificate:

(1) A share certificate in the prescribed format shall be issued to every shareholder in respect of each share subscribed by him/her, within two months after the allotment of shares; the share certificate shall bear the signature of any two out of a director or chief executive of the company or the company secretary, in the case of a public company, and the signature of the person as mentioned in the articles of association or consensus agreement, in the case of a private company, and also bear the seal of the company, if any . (2) While issuing a share certificate in respect of any shares held jointly by two or more persons, the share certificate may be issued to any one of them, by mentioning their names in the certificate. 36 Provided, however, that, the names of all shareholders shall be mentioned in the shareholder register. (3) If a share certificate is lost or destroyed because of a divine act or otherwise, the shareholder shall give information thereof to the registered office the company immediately when he/she knows that the share certificate has been so lost or destroyed because of the divine act or otherwise. (4) If any application made pursuant to Sub-section (3), the company shall , if the matter contained in the application seems to be reasonable after inquiring into all necessary matters relating thereto, issue another share certificate to the applicant, by collecting the duplicate fees for duplicate copy as prescribed in the articles of association; and this matter shall also be recorded in the shareholder register. (5) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, if a listed company has caused a register to be maintained, pursuant to Sub-section (6) of Section 46, by the securities registrar authorized to provide securities deposit service under the prevailing law, provision may be made to issue to the shareholder a securities deposit passbook or any other certificate certifying him/her to be a shareholder, instead of a share certificate. (6) A certificate issued by a company, signed by its competent officer and under the seal of the company, if any, to be used by it, specifying the number of shares or debentures held by any shareholder or debenture-holder shall be prima facie evidence of his/her title to such shares or debentures. (7) If any company allots any shares or debentures or transfers such shares or debentures to a representative of a body licensed under 37 the prevailing law to carry on securities dealings, the provision of Subsection(1) shall not apply to such shares or debentures.

34. Raising loans or issuing debentures:

(1) If a public company deems necessary to raise loans or issue debentures, it may, specifying the reason therefore, a work plan to be executed from proceeds and budget necessary for that propose raise loans or issue debentures with or without pledging or mortgaging its immovable assets. Provided, however, that no debentures may be issued unless and until an approval to commence its business is obtained and its issued capital is fully paid up. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing law, any company may, subject to sub- section(1) , raise additional loans or issue additional debentures against the security already furnished by that company with the already furnished by that company with the previous creditors as a security from such creditors, within the limit of such security, by clearly indicating the previous creditors as well as amount of loan (amount) already obtained. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing law, the matters relating to the terms, repayment period and interest of a loan borrowed or lent by a company shall be governed by a deed or contract concluded between the creditor and the borrower. (4) If a company is to raise loans or issue debentures pursuant to Sub- section (1) or (2) , the company shall give its information, along with the reasons for the same, to the office.

35. Procedures for issuing debentures:

(1) A public company shall, in issuing debentures pursuant to this Act, issue debentures after making 38 provision of a debenture trustee. Such debenture trustee has to be a debenture trustee licensed by the Securities Board. (2) The matters relating to the creditor and the borrower, in issuing debentures with a debenture trustee, shall be as mentioned in an agreement to be concluded between such trustee and the company. (3) If the memorandum of association or the articles of association shall provide that debentures can be converted into shares or such term has been specified prior to the issuance of debentures, an debentures may be converted into shares, subject to the share capital related provisions of this Act. (4) If any debentures are to be converted into shares pursuant to Sub-section (3), this matter has to be clearly mentioned in the prospectus. (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing law, the court may, if it thinks necessary, issue an order of specific performance to get performed a contract concluded between a public company and a person in respect of the subscription of the debentures issued by that company.

36. Agreement to be concluded between debenture trustee and company:

(1) An agreement has to be concluded between a company issuing debentures and a debenture trustee acting as a trustee for the protection of the interest of debenture-holders, in respect of the debentures to be raised by such company. (2) An agreement to be concluded pursuant to Sub-section(1) shall set out the following matters: 39 (a) that the debenture trustee is entitled to carry out, or cause to be carried out, valuation of the company’s assets, project analysis or management analysis, (b) the period of repayment of the principal and interest of debentures subscribed by the debenture-holder, interest rate, mode of repayment of the principal and interest, mode of repayment of the principal and interest, and matter of conversion of debentures into shares, if there is such provision, (c) Matters, relating to a provision made on the lights of other creditors over the assets of the company and liabilities that may arise therefrom in the future. (d) A provision that, in the case of violation or nonfulfillment of the terms mentioned in the agreement or for any other reasonable reason, if it is required to take the control of financial transactions of the company or to take possession if the security as referred to in the agreement, the debenture trustee may take in his/her possession the assets or properties of such company to the property that he has taken as the security of guarantee or hold the security of guarantee with himself/herself or sell the same by auction or in any other appropriate manner, (e) Procedures for payment by the company of the service charges and other direct expenses of he debenture trustee, (f) That the debenture trustee shall not be liable to any loss or damage caused to the company or the 40 debenture-holder from any act done by the trustee in that capacity, (g) That, in the event of occurrence of any circumstances necessitating the liquidation of the company, the debenture trustee is entitled to take such legal action as may be taken in behalf of the debenture- holder and exercise the powers of the debenture holder. (h) Other necessary matters on the protection of interest of the debenture-holder. (3) The debenture trustee may, for the protection of interest of the debenture-holder, take security of the assets of the company and get such security registered in his name pursuant to the prevailing law. (4) Prior to the taking of security pursuant to Sub-section(3), the debenture trustee may, if he/she deems necessary, also carry out, or cause to be carried out, the calculation of property or assets to taken as security and the project analysis of management analysis of the company. (5) After the conclusion of an agreement between a debenture trustee and a company pursuant to this Section, such company has to obtain the approval of the debenture, trustee if any.

37. Inquiry and demand of statements by debenture trustee:

Prior to concluding an agreement with a company to act as a debenture trustee, the debenture trustee may hold necessary inquiry into, and obtain or demand statements, notice or information on, the following matters; and the concerned company has to provide the same if so demanded: (a) Whether the memorandum of association or article of association of the company has a provision that it

41 may raise loans or debentures:

and if so, whether the board of directors of the company has powers to make decision to so raise debentures, (b) Whether the memorandum of association or articles of association of the company has a provision that debentures may be raised through a debentures trustee, (c) Whether there is a situation that the existing assets of the company can cover the value of debentures raised, (d) Matters relating to other creditors and liabilities of the company. (e) The company’s balance sheet and auditor’s report. (f) Such other necessary matters as the debenture trustee may consider to be appropriate.

38. Company to submit periodic statements to debenture trustee:

(1) After an agreement has been concluded between a company and a debenture trustee under Section 36, the company has to submit its statements in financial transactions to the debenture trustee in every six months. (2) In the event of a change in the management or any kind of change in the ownership of the company after raising of debentures, the company has to give information thereof to the debenture trustee within seven days after such change. (3) In the event of necessity of any additional statement, notice or information submitted by the company pursuant to Sub-section(1) or (2), the debenture trustee may demand such statement, notice or 42 information from the company; and it shall be the duty of the company to provide the statement, notice or information so demanded to the debenture trustee.

39. Rights and liabilities of debenture trustee:

(1) If the company violates any of the terms mentioned in the agreement concluded under Section 36, the debenture trustee may instruct such company to fulfill such terms as soon as possible or to make repayment of the principals and interest of the debenture-holder within a time limit as specified by him. (2) If it is required to take the financial transaction of the company under control or to possess the security as referred to in the agreement by reason of the repayment made under Sub-section (1) or for any other reason, the debenture trustee may, subject to the prevailing law, take the assets, properties or securities of such company under his/her control and hold the assets or properties so possessed in his own or sell such assets or properties by auction or otherwise or deal with the same in other manner. (3) Following the possession of the assets of the company under Sub-section (2), the amount of a debenture-holder shall be repaid out of the proceeds of sale of the assets. If any amount remains surplus after repayment of the amount payable to the debenture- holder, the debenture trustee shall return that amount to the concerned company (4) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, except in cases where the debenture trustee himself buys the assets taken by the debenture trustee as the security, if the proceeds of sale of the property which the debenture trustee has taken as security or possessed be not sufficient to repay all the amounts to debenture holders, the debenture trustee shall pay the amounts to debenture- 43 holders on pro rata; and such shortfall amounts shall not be recovered from the debenture trustee’s property. (5) Any debenture-holder holding more than fifty percent debentures may, showing the ground of failure of a debenture trustee to act in the interest of debenture-holder, make an application to the Securities Board to remove such debenture trustee. (6) If, on examining the application made pursuant to Sub-section (5), the contents appear to be reasonable, the Securities Board may remove such debenture trustee and arrange for another debenture trustee.

40. Service charges to be collected by debenture trustee:

(1) The debenture trustee may collect service charge from a company for having acted in the capacity of debenture trustee. The amount of such service charge shall be as specified in the agreement concluded between the debenture trustee and the concerned company. (2) The debenture trustee may recover from the concerned company such actual expenses incurred in doing any act on behalf of the company or debenture-holder or in carrying out valuation, possession or auction sale of the company’s assets.

41. Debenture trustee to have rights of debenture-holder:

(1) If a company raising debentures is liquidated or becomes insolvent for any other reasons, the debenture trustee shall make representation on behalf of the debenture-holder. (2) In the event of necessity to institute a lawsuit on behalf of the debenture-holder for the repayment of the principal and interest of such debenture-holder or otherwise, the debenture trustee shall have the right to institute the lawsuit on behalf of the debenture-holder.

42. Sale or pledge of shares or debentures:

(1) The share or debenture of a company may be sold or pledged as good as movable property, subject to this Act, the memorandum of association and articles of association. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1) , the promoter of a company, other than a private company which has not borrowed loan from any other company, shall not be entitled to sell or pledge any share held by him/her until the first general me eting of that company is held and a call on the share issued in his/her name is fully paid up . (3) where a share or debenture is pledged pursuant to Subsection(1), the pledge shall make an application, in such format and along with such fees as may be prescribed, to the registered office of the company to have the matter recorded in the register. The applicant shall also submit the deed on pledge as well as the share or debenture certificate, along with the application to be so made. (4) Where an application is made pursuant to Sub-section (3), the company shall record in the register the execution of such pledge and on receipt of information on the redemption of the share or debenture so pledged, the records of such pledge shall be crossed off the register.

43. Transmission of shares or debentures:

(1) If any share or debenture is sold, subject to Sub-sections(1) and (2) of Section 42, the buyer thereof shall make an application to the registered office of the company , in such format and along with such fees as may be prescribed, to have such debenture or share transmitted to his/her name. The applicant shall also submit, along with such application, a copy of the deed relating to the sale and purchase of share or debenture certificate. 45 (2) If an application is made under Sub-section (1), the company shall cross off the name of transferor shareholder or debenture holder and enter the name of the transferee shareholder in the register within fifteen days after the making of such application. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1), if the prevailing law on securities transactions provides that no deed of transfer is required to transfer the title to the share or debenture of a company such deed shall not be required to be produced along with an application to be so made. (4) If a person who transfers any securities makes an application, also accompanied by a deed of transfer of share, singed by the purchaser to get the transfer of any share or debenture recorded, the company shall register the name of share or debenture transferee in the shareholder register or debenture- holder register as if such application was made by the transferee him/herself. (5) If any person acquires the title to any share or debenture by operation of any other provision contained in the prevailing law the provision contained in Sub-section(1), shall not be deemed to prevent the company from registering such person as a shareholder or debenture-holder.

44. Refusal to register share or debenture:

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 42 or 43, a company may, in the following circumstances, refuse to record any pledge of a share in the register or to effect transmission of a share or debenture where it has been disposed of: (a) If a call on the share has not been paid up, 46 (b) If such transmission will be contrary to the articles of association of the company or the agreement concluded between the shareholders, (c) If the transfer fee is not furnished along with the application. (2) In refusing to record the pledge of a share or debenture in the register or to effect transmission of a share of debenture under Subsection(1), the company shall give information thereof to both the transferor and the transferee or the ledger and pledge of the share or debenture within fifteen days from the date of making application.

45. Other circumstances where shares or debentures may be transmitted:

If any person becomes entitled to the share or debenture holded by any shareholder or debenture-holder because of his death, being insolvent or otherwise under the prevailing law, and that person so acquiring the title or on whom the title is so devolved makes an application accompanied by an evidence thereof, to the company, in such format and accompanied by such fees as prescribed, the company shall transmit such share or debenture to him/her. Provided, however, that notwithstanding that a share has not yet been transferred to the successor so acquiring the title, if an instrument of transfer of the share held by the previous shareholder and of his/her other rights over such share is executed by /her his heir established under the prevailing law, such transfer shall be deemed to have transferred to such successor.

46. Shareholder and debenture-holder register:

(1) Each company shall establish a shareholder register and debenture-holder register in the prescribed format and maintain the same at its registered office. 47 (2) The following matters concerning each shareholder shall be mentioned in the shareholder register as referred to in Sub-section(1) , according to the serial number of shares: (a) Full name and address of the shareholder, (b) Number of shares subscribed by the shareholder, (c) Total amount paid by the shareholder and outstanding amount payable by him/her for the share, (d) Date of registration of his/her name as the shareholder, (e) Date when his name was struck off, (f) Name and address of the nominee after the death of the shareholder, if such nominee is appointed. (3) The following matters concerning each debenture-holder shall be mentioned in the debenture- holder register as referred to in Subsection (1), according to the serial number of debentures: (a) Full name and address of the debenture-holder, (b) Number of debentures subscribed by the debentureholder, (c) Total amount paid by the debenture-holder and outstanding amount payable by him/her for the debenture, (d) Date of registration of his/her name as the debenture-holder, (e) Date when the name of the debenture-holder was struck off

47.Information on title to share:’ (1) If a company asks any shareholder
to provide information as to what capacity one has obtained the shares
with full voting rights registered in his/her name or whether any other
person has investment in the shares registered in the name of such
shareholder and where there is another person as a the beneficiary of
such shares, as to the identity and nature of the title of that person, it
shall be the duty of such shareholder to provide such information to the
company within thirty days.
(2) On receipt of the information sought under Sub-section (1) ,
the company shall record opposite the name of the concerned
shareholder, in the register the date of demand of such information,
date of receipt of information and the contents of information received
and provide the office with information pertaining there to within seven days.

48. Address of shareholder:

(1) Unless otherwise altered by a notice, the
address of a shareholder mentioned in the shareholder register shall be
considered to be his/her real address.
(2) In the event of change of address of a shareholder, a written
notice of the new address has to be given to the registered office of the
company immediately after such change.
(3) On receipt of the notice as referred to in Sub-section (2) , the
director or company secretary shall record the address so changed in
the shareholder register.
50
(4) When a notice is sent to the address supplied by a shareholder,
a notice required to be sent by a company to the shareholder under this
Act shall, unless otherwise proved, be deemed to have been duly sent,
and received by the concerned shareholder.

49.Index of shareholders:

(1) Unless the shareholder register is in such
form as in itself to clearly constitute an index of the names of
shareholders, every company having more than fifty shareholders shall
prepare and keep a separate index of the names of its shareholders.
(2) In the event of any alteration in the shareholders register,
necessary alteration shall also be made in the index prepared under
Sub-section (1) within thirty days after the date of such alteration in the
register.
(3) The index of shareholders shall be kept in such a manner that
necessary information in respect of each shareholder can be readily
found from the shareholder register.
(4) The index of shareholders shall be kept together with the
shareholder register.
(5) If a company fails to comply with this Section, the company
shall be deemed to have failed to comply with this Act.

50.Substantial shareholders:

(1) If any person subscribes ordinary
shares with full voting rights that are five percent or more of the paid
up capital of any public company of which shares that person has held
in his/her name or through his/her agent, that person shall be deemed
to have his substantial shareholding in such company.
Provided, however, that in the case of a company having the paid up
capital of more than two hundred fifty million rupees, any person shall
be deemed to have the substantial shareholding despite that such
51
person has subscribed one percent or more of the total paid-up capital
of such company.
(2) A substantial shareholder of every public company shall give
the company information setting out his/her name, address as well as
full particulars of the shares registered in his/her or his agent’s name,
within thirty five days after the knowledge of being a substantial
shareholder of that company.
(3) If a person ceases to be a substantial shareholder of any public
company, that person shall give the company information setting out
his/her name, the date on which he ceases to possess the status of a
substantial shareholder of that company and other particulars as well as
the reason why he/she has ceased to be a substantial shareholder,
within thirty-five days after the date of knowledge of that matter.
(4) Every public company shall maintain a separate register for
the purposes of Sub- section (1), (2) and (3).

51. Inventory of shares, debentures and loans:

(1) Every company shall
prepare and maintain an inventory of the existing shareholders and
debenture -holders and persons who ceased to be shareholders or debenture-holders as at thirty days prior to the holding of the……..∝
annual general meeting.
(2) The inventory as referred to in Sub-section (1) spell outs, inter
alia, the following particulars.
(a) Authorized capital and number of shares of the
company,
(b) Issued share capital of the company,
(c) Paid-up capital of the company, Deleted by the Act Amending Some Nepal Acts, 2064 (d) Calls made on every share,
(e) Total amount of installments paid,
(f) Total amount due and recoverable,
(g) Total amount paid on share and debentures as brokerage,
(h) In the event of forfeiture of any shares, total number of such shares, reasons for forfeiture and date thereof, (i) Loans borrowed from any bank, financial institution or any other person or guarantee furnished by the company,
(j) Names and addresses of the existing directors.
(3) The inventory referred to in Sub-section (1) shall be signed by
at least one director and be submitted to the Office within 30 days after
the date at which the annual general meeting of the company is held
and, in the case of a company not holding the annual general meeting
within one year after the date at which the company has obtained
permission to carry on such business as to require permission of the
concerned body pursuant to the prevailing law, if the company carries
on such business, and after the date of registration where such
permission is not required; and if there is any alteration in the inventory
once it is submitted pursuant to Sub-section (2) , only the details of such
alteration can be submitted. (4) If any alteration is made in the inventory, as referred to in sun section (1), of a company not holding the general meeting details ,thereof shall be sent to the Office within six months of such alteration. (5) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Section, if any company mentions the details as referred to in Sub-section(1), as well, in the report required to be submitted pursuant to Section 78, such company shall not be required to send a separate inventory to this Office under this Section .

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